Nietzsche is well-known for his advocating for mistrust and suspicion; however, he attacks unhealthy and deviating forms of trust considering the very idea of trust to be an inalienable condition of prosperity. Therefore, people may trust some moral beliefs in order to preserve human race. Despite the fact that there are significant differences in the writing style of the works of Nietzsche, Hume and James, the ideas of Nietzsche’s The Gay Science remind the ones presented in Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and James’s The Sentiment of Rationality.
Moral beliefs of people serve as a way of making the world more rational. James argues that people accept certain beliefs in order to make total chaos rational; however, Nietzsche explains irrationality of such actions due to the chaotic character of the world. Similar to Hume, Nietzsche articulates the idea that none of people’s beliefs can be rationally justified. Therefore, he finds the essence of a belief in morality as well as causation for this matter to have no rational foundation. While both of the philosophers make efforts to communicate this problem, Nietzsche and Hume’s accounts are different in terms of the applied approaches. According to Hume, people have natural inclination to sympathy resulting in the acceptance of their moral convictions. In contrast to this, Nietzsche presents a theory of morality based on psychology; it completely weakens human moral beliefs. Thus, according to Nietzsche, people accept such beliefs without receiving any explanations or asking questions whether these beliefs are true or false; however, he admits that the strength of healthy trust on morality lies in its “promoting the faith in life” (Nietzsche 28). Therefore, moral beliefs are not necessarily useless and unreliable; some of them can even contribute to preserving human’s spirits.
Thus, in spite of the fact that there are significant differences in the style of Nietzsche’s, Hume’s, and James’s works, Nietzsche’s ideas remind the ones offered by Hume and James. Nietzsche enriches people’s understanding of Hume and James by communicating the matter of trust to morality. In fact, none of the moral belief systems can be considered true or false, even the one provided by Nietzsche. However, people have a right to personally choose beliefs and norms worth following. Nevertheless, asking questions and doubting about “truths” is better than living in ignorance. Longing for knowledge and practical experience distinguish people from animals, and people should not forget about it.
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